Cross-cultural effects on graphical password memorability and design

Document Type


Publication Date



Purpose: This study aims to examine the impact of cultural familiarity with images on the memorability of recognition-based graphical password (RBG-P). Design/methodology/approach: The researchers used a between-group design with two groups of 50 participants from China and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, using a webtool and two questionnaires to test two hypotheses in a four-week long study. Findings: The results showed that culture has significant effects on RBG-P memorability, including both recognition and recall of images. It was also found that the login success rate depreciated quickly as time progressed, which indicates the memory decay and its effects on the visual memory. Research limitations/implications: Collectively, these results can be used to design universal RBG-Ps with maximal password deflection points. For better cross-cultural designs, designers must allow users from different cultures to personalize their image selections based on their own cultures. Practical implications: The RBG-P interfaces developed without consideration for users’ cultures may lead to the construction of passwords that are difficult to memorize and easy to attack. Thus, the incorporation of cultural images is indispensable for improving the authentication posture. Social implications: The development of RBG-P with cultural considerations will make it easy for the user population to remember the password and make it more expensive for the intruder to attack. Originality/value: This study provides an insight for RBG-P developers to produce a graphical password platform that increases the memorability factor.

Publication Title

Journal of Systems and Information Technology

First Page Number


Last Page Number




This document is currently not available here.