Difficulty, consequence, and effort in academic task performance
This study extends previous research on the expectancy construct of the expectancy-value theory of motivation developed by Pintrich. In addition to value and expectancy for success, it is proposed that people take into account how much effort is required to complete a task. A 2 × 2 × 2 analysis of variance design was used to investigate the relationship of Difficulty, Consequence, and Required Effort on the willingness of participants to complete a task. The dependent variable was the score obtained from completing statistical problems that varied in difficulty and effort required to complete. 128 students at a public university were participants. Analysis showed significant main effects and an interaction for difficulty and required effort, but no main effect for consequence. Results are discussed in terms of creating optimal motivation for classroom tasks and for both classroom and standardized examinations. Implications for students in subject pools are also discussed.
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Smith, Lisa F., "Difficulty, consequence, and effort in academic task performance" (1999). Kean Publications. 2794.