Insights into effects of salt stress on the oil-degradation capacity, cell response, and key metabolic pathways of Bacillus sp. YM1 isolated from oily food waste compost

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A novel bacterial strain, Bacillus sp. YM1, was isolated from compost for the efficient degradation of oily food waste under salt stress. The strain's lipase activity, oil degradation ability, and tolerance to salt stress were evaluated in a liquid medium. Additionally, the molecular mechanisms (including key genes and functional processes) underlying the strain's salt-resistant degradation of oil were investigated based on RNA-Seq technology. The results showed that after 24 h of microbial degradation, the degradation rate of triglycerides in soybean oil was 80.23% by Bacillus sp. YM1 at a 30 g L−1 NaCl concentration. The metabolizing mechanism of long-chain triglycerides (C50–C58) by the YM1 strain, especially the biodegradation rate of triglycerides (C18:3/C18:3/C18:3), could reach 98.65%. The most substantial activity of lipase was up to 325.77 U·L−1 at a salinity of 30 g L−1 NaCl. During salt-induced stress, triacylglycerol lipase was identified as the crucial enzyme involved in oil degradation in Bacillus sp. YM1, and its synthesis was regulated by the lip gene (M5E02_13495). Bacillus sp. YM1 underwent adaptation to salt stress through various mechanisms, including the accumulation of free amino acids, betaine synthesis, regulation of intracellular Na+/K+ balance, the antioxidative response, spore formation, and germination. The key genes involved in Bacillus sp. YM1's adaptation to salt stress were responsible for the synthesis of glutamate 5-kinase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, Na+/H+ antiporter, general stress protein, and sporogenic proteins belonging to the YjcZ family. Results indicated that the isolated strain of Bacillus sp. YM1 could significantly degrade oil in a short time under salt stress. This study would introduce new salt-tolerant strains for coping with the biodegradation of oily food waste and provide gene targets for use in genetic engineering.

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