Reflective and integrative learning and the role of instructors and institutions—evidence from Malaysia

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The shift in contemporary workplaces has caused higher education institutions to place importance on developing non-academic attributes along with academic success to help students accomplish academic and occupational goals. Reflective and integrative learning as a cumulative process of students’ experiences inside and outside the classroom during university years can facilitate the development of desired attributes among undergraduates. The current study, grounded in Biggs’ (Higher education research and development, 12(1), 73-85, 1993) 3P model approach, investigated the role of student-faculty interaction, assessment and feedback, and campus environment as presage factors, and reflective and integrative learning as the process factor and academic and soft skills gain as the product factors into a full mediation model. A total of 1892 final year Malaysian undergraduate students from 18 universities across Malaysia participated in the cross-sectional survey study. The hypothesized model was tested using structural equation modeling. The results revealed that reflective and integrative learning fully mediates the relationship between student-faculty interaction, assessment and feedback, campus environment, and academic and soft skills gains. The implications for teaching and learning and student development are discussed.

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Higher Education

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