Assessing the drug resistance profiles of oral probiotic lozenges
Background: Probiotic lozenges have been developed to harvest the benefits of probiotics for oral health, but their long-term consumption may encourage the transfer of resistance genes from probiotics to commensals, and eventually to disease-causing bacteria. Aim: To screen commercial probiotic lozenges for resistance to antibiotics, characterize the resistance determinants, and examine their transferability in vitro. Results: Probiotics of all lozenges were resistant to glycopeptide, sulfonamide, and penicillin antibiotics, while some were resistant to aminoglycosides and cephalosporins. High minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were detected for streptomycin (>128 µg/mL) and chloramphenicol (> 512 µg/mL) for all probiotics but only one was resistant to piperacillin (MIC = 32 µg/mL). PCR analysis detected erythromycin (erm(T), ermB or mefA) and fluoroquinolone (parC or gyr(A)) resistance genes in some lozenges although there were no resistant phenotypes. The dfrD, cat-TC, vatE, aadE, vanX, and aph(3”)-III or ant(2”)-I genes conferring resistance to trimethoprim, chloramphenicol, quinupristin/dalfopristin, vancomycin, and streptomycin, respectively, were detected in resistant probiotics. The rifampicin resistance gene rpoB was also present. We found no conjugal transfer of streptomycin resistance genes in our co-incubation experiments. Conclusion: Our study represents the first antibiotic resistance profiling of probiotics from oral lozenges, thus highlighting the health risk especially in the prevailing threat of drug resistance globally.
Journal of Oral Microbiology
Wang, Yi; Dong, Jingya; Wang, Junyi; Chi, Wei; Zhou, Wei; Tian, Qiwen; Hong, Yue; Zhou, Xuan; Ye, Hailv; Tian, Xuechen; Hu, Rongdang; and Wong, Aloysius, "Assessing the drug resistance profiles of oral probiotic lozenges" (2022). Kean Publications. 820.