Production Spaces for Industry 4.0
The Fourth Industrial Revolution, also known as “Industry 4.0, " encompasses new digital and advanced technologies, new kinds of work configurations, artificial intelligence, and smart and green machines. The spaces in which new products are designed, tested, produced, and introduced into the marketplace are transforming factory architecture from the traditional one-factory-per-behemoth-building model to new spatial and organizational systems of neo-cottage industries in a new industrial commons. Common to the new spaces is the renovation of former urban factories in which small-batch production is overtaking mass production in cities and is cleaner, quieter, and highly networked.
The Design of Urban Manufacturing
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Rappaport, Nina, "Production Spaces for Industry 4.0" (2019). Kean Publications. 1383.