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Each of the ~1013 cells, including brain cells (86 billion), in the human body is subjected to tens of thousands of DNA aberrations. If these lesions are not repaired or removed immediately, the result would be mutations, some of which may threaten cell or organism viability. As if this attack is not damaging enough to health, primary cancer transmission from various organs to the brain result in serious health problems, which are discussed in this chapter. Specifically, dissemination of cancer cells from breast and esophagus and melanoma to the brain (intracranial brain cancer) is detailed here. Accumulation of DNA lesions in the brain is associated with neurodegenerative disorders such as ataxias, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases. Clinical treatments (surgery, stereotactic radiosurgery, whole brain radiation therapy, and chemotherapy) for patients with metastatic brain cancer are discussed. A large number of human monoclonal antibodies used for patients with melanoma and cancers of breast and esophagus are also discussed. For patients with esophageal cancer, esophagectomy is presented. Advantages and limitations of each treatment used alone or in combination are included. Mutations in melanoma are described.

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Brain Metastases from Primary Tumors: Epidemiology, Biology, and Therapy of Melanoma and Other Cancers

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