Thermal instability analysis in magneto-hybrid nanofluid layer between rough surfaces with variable gravity and space-dependent heat source

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The onset of thermal instability with hybrid nanoparticles Al2O3-Cu in nanofluid is investigated with the combined effects of variable gravity, variable heat source and Lorentz force in a porous medium. Its applications are in many areas like chemical engineering, geophysics, astrophysics, etc. Based on literature, many gravity variations are assumed in the present analysis, along with a space-dependent heat source/sink parameter that varies along the width of the channel. The finite difference-based Lobatto IIIa method has been applied to solve the system under no nanoparticle flux and rough boundary conditions, and approximate analytical results are generated for some special cases. The roughness parameters (λ1,λ2), Darcy number (Da), gravity variation function (G(z)), and Chandrasekhar number (Q) delay the onset of convection and thus stabilize the system. It is also observed that an increase in the Lewis number Le, power index in variable heat source, and the nanoparticle Rayleigh concentration number Rn decreases the critical Rayleigh number Rθ,c which destabilizes the system, and increases the critical wave number, which enlarges the convection cell size. In the case of exponential variation (1-ez) in the gravity variation parameter, the system becomes stabilized due to a delay in the onset of convection. In addition, we have considered multilayer perceptron-artificial neural network (MLP-ANN) computation to predict the critical Rayleigh number as per function of important controlling parameters. The data set of 625 observations is chosen keeping 70% for testing, 15% for training and 15% for validation using efficient Levenberg-Marquardt back propagation algorithm with optimal accuracy measures i.e., root mean square deviation (RMSE), root mean relative error (RMRE) and R2 (coefficient of determination). Finally, the regression plots are drawn that correlate, target and output data.

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International Journal of Modern Physics B



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