Twin cyclic mononucleotide cyclase and phosphodiesterase domain architecture as a common feature in complex plant proteins

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The majority of proteins in both prokaryote and eukaryote proteomes consist of two or more functional centers, which allows for intramolecular tuning of protein functions. Such architecture, as opposed to animal orthologs, applies to the plant cyclases (CNC) and phosphodiesterases (PDEs), the vast majority of which are part of larger multifunctional proteins. In plants, until recently, only two cases of combinations of CNC-PDE in one protein were reported. Here we propose that in plants, multifunctional proteins in which the PDE motif has been identified, the presence of the additional CNC center is common. Searching the Arabidopsis thaliana proteome with a combined PDE-CNC motif allowed the creation of a database of proteins with both activities. One such example is methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase, in which we determined the activities of adenylate cyclase (AC) and PDE. Based on biochemical and mutagenesis analyses we assessed the impact of the AC and PDE catalytic centers on the dehydrogenase activity. This allowed us to propose additional regulatory mechanism that govern folate metabolism by cAMP. It is therefore conceivable that the combined CNC-PDE architecture is a common regulatory configuration, where control of the level of cyclic nucleotides (cNMP) influences other catalytic activities of the protein.

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Plant Science



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