Variable-heavy (VH) families influencing IgA1&2 engagement to the antigen, FcαRI and superantigen proteins G, A, and L

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Interest in IgA as an alternative antibody format has increased over the years with much remaining to be investigated in relation to interactions with immune cells. Considering the recent whole antibody investigations showing significant distal effects between the variable (V) and constant (C)- regions that can be mitigated by the hinge regions of both human IgA subtypes A1 and A2, we performed an in-depth mechanistic investigation using a panel of 28 IgA1s and A2s of both Trastuzumab and Pertuzumab models. FcαRI binding were found to be mitigated by the differing glycosylation patterns in IgA1 and 2 with contributions from the CDRs. On their interactions with antigen-Her2 and superantigens PpL, SpG and SpA, PpL was found to sterically hinder Her2 antigen binding with unexpected findings of IgAs binding SpG at the CH2-3 region alongside SpA interacting with IgAs at the CH1. Although the VH3 framework (FWR) is commonly used in CDR grafting, we found the VH1 framework (FWR) to be a possible alternative when grafting IgA1 and 2 owing to its stronger binding to antigen Her2 and weaker interactions to superantigen Protein L and A. These findings lay the foundation to understanding the interactions between IgAs and microbial superantigens, and also guide the engineering of IgAs for future antibody applications and targeting of superantigen-producing microbes.

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Scientific Reports



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