Exploring green gentrification in 28 global North cities: the role of urban parks and other types of greenspaces
Although cities globally are increasingly mobilizing re-naturing projects to address diverse urban socio-environmental and health challenges, there is mounting evidence that these interventions may also be linked to the phenomenon known as green gentrification. However, to date the empirical evidence on the relationship between greenspaces and gentrification regarding associations with different greenspace types remains scarce. This study focused on 28 mid-sized cities in North America and Western Europe. We assessed improved access to different types of greenspace (i.e. total area of parks, gardens, nature preserves, recreational areas or greenways [i] added before the 2000s or [ii] added before the 2010s) and gentrification processes (including [i] gentrification for the 2000s; [ii] gentrification for the 2010s; [iii] gentrification throughout the decades of the 2000s and 2010s) in each small geographical unit of each city. To estimate the associations, we developed a Bayesian hierarchical spatial model for each city and gentrification time period (i.e. a maximum of three models per city). More than half of our models showed that parks—together with other factors such as proximity to the city center—are positively associated with gentrification processes, particularly in the US context, except in historically Black disinvested postindustrial cities with lots of vacant land. We also find than in half of our models newly designated nature preserves are negatively associated with gentrification processes, particularly when considering gentrification throughout the 2000s and the 2010s and in the US. Meanwhile, for new gardens, recreational spaces and greenways, our research shows mixed results (some positive, some negative and some no effect associations). Considering the environmental and health benefits of urban re-naturing projects, cities should keep investing in improving park access while simultaneously implementing anti-displacement and inclusive green policies.
Environmental Research Letters
Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Anguelovski, Isabelle; Connolly, James J.T.; Martin, Nick; Matheney, Austin; Cole, Helen V.S.; Pérez-Del-Pulgar, Carmen; García-Lamarca, Melissa; Shokry, Galia; Argüelles, Lucía; Conesa, David; Gallez, Elsa; Sarzo, Blanca; Beltrán, Miguel Angel; López Máñez, Jesúa; Martínez-Minaya, Joaquín; Oscilowicz, Emilia; Arcaya, Mariana C.; and Baró, Francesc, "Exploring green gentrification in 28 global North cities: the role of urban parks and other types of greenspaces" (2022). Kean Publications. 529.