The Efficacy of Therapeutic DNA Vaccines Expressing the Human Papillomavirus E6 and E7 Oncoproteins for Treatment of Cervical Cancer: Systematic Review

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Cervical cancer is recognized as a serious public health problem since it remains one of the most common cancers with a high mortality rate among women despite existing preventative, screening, and treatment approaches. Since Human Papillomavirus (HPV) was recognized as the causative agent, the preventative HPV vaccines have made great progress over the last few years. However, people already infected with the virus require an effective treatment that would ensure long-term survival and a cure. Currently, clinical trials investigating HPV therapeutic vaccines show a promising vaccine-induced T-cell mediated immune response, resulting in cervical lesion regression and viral eradication. Among existing vaccine types (live vector, protein-based, nucleic acid-based, etc.), deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) therapeutic vaccines are the focus of the study, since they are safe, cost-efficient, thermostable, easily produced in high purity and distributed. The aim of this study is to assess and compare existing DNA therapeutic vaccines in phase I and II trials, expressing HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins for the prospective treatment of cervical cancer based on clinical efficacy, immunogenicity, viral clearance, and side effects. Five different DNA therapeutic vaccines (GX-188E, VGX-3100, pNGVL4a-CRT/E7(detox), pNGVL4a-Sig/E7(detox)/HSP70, MEDI0457) were well-tolerated and clinically effective. Clinical implementation of DNA therapeutic vaccines into treatment regimen as a sole approach or in combination with conservative treatment holds great potential for effective cancer treatment.

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